Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

Instituto de energía solar

R&D at IES

Integration of batteries in PV plants

High penetration of PV power into the electrical networks leads Transmission System Operators to establish some restricting norms to assure the stability of the grid, such as power ramp rate limitation or frequency regulation. These norms oblige PV promoters to integrate batteries in the PV plants to fulfil them. Although the state of the art of batteries is evolving very fast, their high cost pushes to research on optimal solutions looking for feasibility.

Our research group has a long trajectory analyzing the battery requirements for PV power ramp rate limitation. The first step was to characterize PV power fluctuations, depending on the size and distribution of PV plants, recording 1-second PV power data from a wide set of operational PV plants. This allows us to establish a method to size the battery able to absorb every PV power fluctuations to fulfill a certain ramp rate.

Nowadays, we are researching on methods to reduce the battery size without impact in the fulfillment of regulations but reducing dramatically the system cost.




Contact person: Prof. Eduardo Lorenzo


Selected publications:

  1. J. Marcos, O. Storkel, L. Marroyo, M. Garcia, and E. Lorenzo, "Storage requirements for PV power ramp-rate control”, Solar Energy, vol. 99, pp. 28-35, Jan 2014. (DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2013.10.037)

  2. J. Marcos, L. Marroyo, E. Lorenzo, and M. García, "Smoothing of PV power fluctuations by geographical dispersion”, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 20, pp. 226-237, 2012. (DOI: 10.1002/pip.1127)

  3. J. Marcos, L. Marroyo, E. Lorenzo, D. Alvira, and E. Izco, "From irradiance to output power fluctuations: The PV plant as a low pass filter”, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 19, pp. 505-510, 2011. (DOI: 10.1002/pip.1063)

  4. J. Marcos, L. Marroyo, E. Lorenzo, D. Alvira, and E. Izco, "Power output fluctuations in large scale PV plants: one year observations with one second resolution and a derived analytic model”, Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 19, pp. 218-227, Mar 2011. (DOI: 10.1002/pip.1016)

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