Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

Semiconductor manufacturing (Solar cells, LEDs)


Semiconductor devices manufacturing, including a pilot line for small batches of up to 4” wafers (full solar cells, LEDs). All the fabrication steps are available and optimized in house:

  • Photolithography: Accurate UV-light based photolithographic process (up to 0,5 µm) through mask aligner transferring geometric patterns from a photomask on a spin-coated photoresist over semiconductor wafers.

  • Metal thin-film deposition of various layers over samples (specifically for different types of semiconductor, i.e. solar cells contacts):

    • Thermal evaporation: Up to three different materials in a single process.
    • E-Beam Physical Vapour Deposition technology (EBPVD): Up to six different metals.
    • Electroplating: Deposition of gold, nickel and others, such as electroless nickel.

  • Thermal treatments through RTP (Rapid Thermal Process) for semiconductor annealing.

  • Various wet etching processes: selective and non-selective wet mesa etching, semiconductor surface preparation, substrate removal, etc.

  • Anti-reflective coating through EBPVD: various dielectric layers can be deposited to form multilayer anti-reflection coatings over samples (semiconductor or others).

  • Semiconductor (solar cell) dicing process: saw dicing of arbitrary device sizes on up to 6” wafers.

  • Device packaging:

    • Flip-chip for substrate removal.
    • Wirebonding: The Wirebondig Delvotek 5430 model  is used in making electrical connections between microelectronic components and their packages. The compressive force can be carefully controlled which enables also processing of brittle materials.
      The 5430 is an ultrasonic wedge-wedge bonder designed for the processing of aluminuium bond material in the 18 to 75 µm diameter thin-wire range.

  • Test Assemblies

Due to the need to carry out different characterization methods on our devices, transport them more easily or subject them to accelerated degradation testing, we have developed a variety of test assemblies.
Depending on the testing needs, we can develop assemblies on Copper+PCB, IMS, DBC, assemblies for accelerated degradation testing and ad-hoc assemblies to meet customer’s requirements.



Please visit Solar cell manufacturing facilities for details on the infrastructures.


Contact person: Dr. Iván García


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